Our Limited License X-ray Program entitled
Radiology Study Guide Program

The most comprehensive online radiology study course available!

$379.00

The Radiology Study Guide is a limited license x-ray course designed specifically for Nurses, medical assistants, CNA's and other health care workers who are asked to perform x-rays in addition to their regular duties.

The Radiology Study Guide has been developed to serve two objectives:
1. Providing basic academic education in Radiologic Technology
2. Preparing eligible candidates to successfully sit for State limited licensure certification examinations.

When you purchase Glacier Valley's online Radiology Study Guide, there are no books to buy, no classes to attend, and no travel required. Everything you need is included within the online course. Study from the comfort of your own home, or from work- wherever you have an internet connection. You complete the course at your own pace and you can come and go from the course 24 hours a day, seven days a week. There is no expiration time restrictions imposed by Glacier Valley- once you enter the course, you can take as long as you need to complete it.

Please note: We do not organize or administer clinical placements. If your state requires clinical hours as part the requirements to obtain a state limited license, you must arrange for your clinical affiliation(s).  You cannot get a college degree, or become a certified radiologic technologic technologist through any online or home study course. The only way to become a registered radiologic technologist is to enroll in an accredited two-year school of radiologic technology. However, in many states, you can be granted a limited license or permit, which allows you to perform specific radiology exams. Many students who are working towards a limited license or permit use our Radiology Study Guide course as their primary or supplemental curriculum.   

Program Length

This course was designed with the assumption that the student taking the course has not worked in a radiology setting in the past. Although length of time to complete the course varies considerably according to each students background and study habits, we have listed the amount of time we suggest the average student spends in each section of the course so that a solid foundation of learning can be achieved. Some students complete the course in a fraction of the suggested time, while others take longer. The suggested reading times are included on the following course outline. 
 
The Radiology Study Guide course is divided into two main divisions: Academic curriculum and Clinical curriculum. These two main divisions are further sub-divided into 27 smaller sections, each with 10-20 pages of reading.
  1. Academic Curriculum: 150 hours of reading. This includes the first 16 sections of the course including physics, equipment, radiation safety, technical factors, anatomy, etc.
  2. Clinical Curriculum: 100 hours of reading and practice. This includes the final 11 sections of the course including positioning the patient and correctly performing the procedures. In some states, students are required to spend a certain number of clinical hands-on hours in a medical facility practicing and performing radiographic procedures as part of their state licensing requirements. You can check your state's requirements by using the "requirements" link at the bottom of this page).

Suggested reading time to complete the Radiology Study Guide Course is about 250 hours (150 hours for the academic portion and 100 hours for the clinical portion)
.

 

Our Radiology Study Guide Course Covers the Following Topics:

Introduction Into the Radiology Department
Fundamentals of Radiobiology and Radiation Physics

Components of an x-ray machine and x-ray equipment
Radiation safety for workers
Radiation safety for patients
Radiation exposure monitoring
Radiographic technique: kVp, mAs, & time
Technical factors in image production
Darkroom, Film processing;
PACs and Digital Radiography

Malfunctions and film critique
Radiographic contrast agents
Radiographic contrast reactions
Managing acute medical emergencies
Infection control
Patient education, safety and comfort
Professional and legal responsibilities of health care workers
General radiographic positioning principles
Anatomy
Upper extremity positioning
Lower extremity positioning
Chest positioning
Abdomen positioning
Spine positioning
Skull positioning
GI/GI and Fluoroscopic procedures
Radiographic and Film Image Critique
Tips for taking your state limited licensure examination.


Study Guide Course Contents

Section 1: Introduction into the Radiology Department
Suggested Reading Time: 2 hours

Section 2: Properties of X-rays and X-ray Physics
Suggested Reading Time: 12 hours

OBJECTIVES: In this section, we will examine the physics and properties of x-rays.

  • The discovery of x-rays
  • What are x-rays
  • Properties of x-rays
  • The structure of atoms and the Periodic table of the elements
  • Radiation sensitivity of body tissues
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Describe the basic properties of x-rays.
2. Describe the electromagnetic spectrum and where x-rays are found within the spectrum.
3. List the basic units and properties of atoms.
4. List which elements of the periodic table of the elements are used in radiography today.
5. Describe differences between Compton scatter, photoelectric effect, primary and secondary radiation.
6. Explain the effects of x-rays on human cells and identify the most sensitive body tissues.

Section 3: Components of the X-ray Machine and X-ray Equipment
Suggested Reading Time: 12 hours
OBJECTIVES:
  • How x-rays are produced by an x-ray tube
  • X-ray tube construction
  • Anode-heel effect
  • X-ray tube warm-up
  • Generator, rectifier, transformer, line voltage compensator, and operator's console.
  • Manual timers and phototimers
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Describe how x-rays are produced within an x-ray machine.
2. Describe the parts of an x-ray tube.
3. Explain the anode-heel effect.
4. Describe what a tube warm-up is and why it is important.
5. Describe a tube rating chart and what it is used for.
6. Describe various components of the x-ray tube and list how each contributes towards generating x-rays.
7. Describe differences between single-phase and three-phase energy.

Section 4: Radiation Protection for Health Care Workers
Suggested Reading Time: 8 hours
OBJECTIVES:
  • The outcomes of various interactions of x-rays with matter
  • Inverse square law
  • Primary and secondary exposure
  • Protective shielding
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. List the possible interactions x-rays may have with matter.
2. Recognize what the inverse square law is and how it applies to x-ray examinations.
3. Describe primary and secondary shielding.
4. Select shielding devices used for patient and employee radiation protection.
5. Describe important safety measures used by x-ray technologists to minimize exposure.

Section 5: Minimizing Radiation Dose to Patients
Suggested Reading Time: 8 hours

OBJECTIVES:
  • Restricting the x-ray beam
  • X-ray beam filtration
  • Radiation protection for patients
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Identify essential safety measures used to minimize radiation exposure to patients.
2. Describe common devices used in x-ray beam filtration and how each is used.
3. Describe differences between inherent and added filtration and why each is important.
4. List common devices used to shield patients from unnecessary x-ray exposure.

Section 6: Monitoring Radiation Exposure
Suggested Reading Time: 8 hours

OBJECTIVES:
  • Units of radiation measurement
  • Types of radiation monitoring devices
  • Radiation monitoring programs
  • Maximum yearly and lifetime permissible occupational radiation exposure
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Describe the following terms: Rad, Rem, Roentgen, Sievert, Becquerel, Gray, and Curie.
2. Describe the relationship between the above units of measurement.
3. Recognize the various types of radiation monitoring devices used measure occupational exposure.
4. Describe the maximum permissible occupational exposure.

Section 7: Technical Factors of X-ray Production (kVp, mAs and time)
Suggested Reading Time: 16 hours
OBJECTIVES:
  • Technical factors of x-ray production: kVp, mAs, exposure time, and distance
  • Contrast: subject, image and radiographic
  • The inverse square law
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Define radiographic technique.
2. Define kVp and it's influence on a radiographic image.
3. Define mAs and it's influence on a radiographic image.
4. Describe how exposure time effects the radiographic image.
5. Identify the relationship between the inverse square law and radiographic technique.

Section 8: Technical Factors of X-ray Production (film, screens, grids)
Suggested Reading Time: 16 hours

OBJECTIVES:
  • Intensifying screens
  • Grids
  • Filtration and compensating filters
  • X-ray film
  • Factors which influence radiographic detail
  • Magnification and distortion of the radiographic image
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Describe the construction, properties and handling of an intensifying screen.
2. Describe the construction, properties and handling of x-ray film.
3. List the properties, construction and uses of grids.
4. Discuss the relationship between screens, film and exposure factors (technique).
5. Identify various types of compensating filters and describe how they influence the image.
6. Describe factors which influence radiographic detail.

Section 9: Processing x-ray film in the darkroom, archiving images, PACS and film-less networks
Suggested Reading Time: 10 hours

OBJECTIVES:
  • Construction, properties, and handling of x-ray film
  • Film storage and handling
  • Darkroom safelights for film
  • Film fog
  • Automatic x-ray film processing and film transport
  • Silver recovery
  • Common automatic film processor problems
  • Processor maintenance
  • PACS and film-less radiology

By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Identify the various layers of x-ray film and describe what each provides.
2. Describe how silver halide crystals within film produce a radiographic image.
3. Describe proper x-ray film storage and handling.
4. Identify common film artifacts.
5. Describe film fog and explain why it is undesirable.
6. Discuss darkroom safelights and their effect on various film types.
7. Describe each of the steps of automatic film processing and identify chemicals used in each step.
8. Describe silver recovery and why it is important.
9. Understand how a PACS system archives and transmits images throughout a radiology network


Section 10: Malfunctions of X-ray Equipment, Troubleshooting poor films
Suggested Reading Time: 8 hours

OBJECTIVES:

  • Radiographic equipment problems and trouble shooting
  • Improper technique selection
  • Common reasons why films have to be repeated
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Determine the most likely causes of unacceptable radiographic images and how to correct each.
2. Explain how to perform a film/screen contact test and why it is important.

Section 11: Radiographic Contrast Agents
Suggested Reading Time: 4 hours

OBJECTIVES:
  • History of discovery and development of contrast agents used in x-ray
  • Terms related to radiographic contrast agents
  • Negative and positive contrast
  • Clinical uses of contrast
  • Adverse reactions to contrast
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Define the correct definition of the following: osmolality, viscosity, toxicity, and tonicity.
2. Describe differences between positive and negative contrast agents and when each should be used.
3. Identify appropriate routes of administration of contrast agents.
4. Describe how contrast injections are performed for common radiographic procedures.
5. Explain the difference between iodinated and non-ionic contrast agents.

Section 12: Radiographic Contrast Reactions
Suggested Reading Time: 4 hours

OBJECTIVES:
  • Screening patients prior to contrast administration
  • Types of contrast reaction: Mild, Moderate, Severe, and Fatal
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Explain why pre-screening patients prior to contrast administration is important.
2. List important points which must be included in pre-screening questions.
3. Describe possible clinical symptoms of each of the following adverse reactions: chemotoxic, idiosyncratic, mild, moderate, severe and fatal.

Section 13: Medical Emergencies in the Radiology Department
Suggested Reading Time: 8 hours

OBJECTIVES:
  • Basic terms related to medical emergencies
  • Common medical emergencies experienced in a healthcare facility
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Correctly describe various terms related to medical emergencies.
2. Describe clinical symptoms of the following:
  • syncope
  • epistaxis
  • fall
  • respiratory distress
  • stroke
  • diabetic problems
  • acute cardiac problems.
Section 14: Infection Control
Suggested Reading Time: 8 hours

OBJECTIVES:
  • Infection and disease transmission
  • Asepsis and sterile technique
  • Standard precautions
  • Isolation
  • Transporting or performing examinations on infectious patients.
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Describe how microorganisms are transmitted through both direct and indirect contact.
2. Explain how to properly dispose of hazardous medical waste.
3. Define the following terms: asepsis, antisepsis, medical asepsis, sterilization, and sterile technique.
4. Describe the most common reasons patients are placed in isolation and list the various types of isolation.

Section 15: Patient Confidentiality, Quality Patient Care, Patient Education
Suggested Reading Time: 8 hours

OBJECTIVES:
  • Providing quality patient care
  • Patient confidentiality
  • Aspects of care patients value most
  • Patient education
  • Patient assessment
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Describe primary points that patients expect in quality healthcare.
2. Explain why demonstrating genuine caring and interest improves patient satisfaction.
3. List several ways rapport can be established with a patient.
4. Describe the key elements in providing a high standard of care.
5. Define patient confidentiality and why it is so important.
6. List several ways patient wait time can be reduced.
7. Describe after-procedure instructions and explain why they are given.

Section 16: Professional and Legal Considerations in Radiology

Suggested Reading Time: 8 hours
OBJECTIVES:
  • Scope of practice
  • Duties of a radiologic technologist
  • Common causes of litigation against health care workers
  • Public law
  • Civil law
  • Patient identification
By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. Define scope of practice as related to radiologic technology.
2. Describe the three levels of practice for radiographic technologists.
3. Define patient rights and give two examples.
4. Describe informed consent.
5. Explain the difference between civil and public law.
6. Describe steps that can be taken to ensure patient verification.

Section 17: Introduction into Performing Radiographic Procedures
Suggested Reading Time: 12 hours

OBJECTIVES:
  • Preparing for and performing radiographic examinations
  • Radiographic views, patient position, body part position, and central ray projection
  • Medical terminology

By the end of this section, the student should be able to:
1. List the steps to prepare for and perform a radiographic examination.
2. Describe radiographic view.
3. Define patient position.
4. Define body part position.
5. Define central ray projection.
6. Identify and match medical terms related to positioning patients for radiographic examinations.
7. Identify external landmarks used in radiographic positioning.
8. Describe differences in various types of body habitus.
9. Match medical prefixes, root words, and suffixes from a list.

Note:
Some students are only interested in becoming licensed in one or two areas of practice, while others are interested in becoming licensed in all scopes of practice available. All students should read through each of the following sections of the course even if they do not intend to become licensed in certain sections. This ensures a more fundamental background and will prove to be valuable. Suggested reading times are for students who intend to become licensed in that specific scope of practice.


Section 18: Anatomy and Physiology
Suggested Reading Time: 10 hours

Section 19: Upper Lower Extremity Positioning
Suggested Reading Time: 10 hours

Section 20: Lower Extremity Positioning
Suggested Reading Time: 10 hours

Section 21: Chest Positioning
Suggested Reading Time: 10 hours

Section 22: Abdomen Positioning
Suggested Reading Time: 10 hours

Section 23: Spine Positioning
Suggested Reading Time: 10 hours

Section 24: Skull Positioning
Suggested Reading Time: 10 hours
Section

25: Gastrointestinal, Genitourinary and Fluoroscopy
Suggested Reading Time: 10 hours

Section 26: Radiographic Film Critique and Image Evaluation
Suggested Reading Time: 10 hours

Section 27: Tips on taking your state limited license examination and receiving your certificate of course completion.

Total course duration is approximately four months. However students work at their own pace. Some students with medical or radiology office background complete the course in only a month or two, while others take over a year. The time it takes for any student is based on your own work, family and personal schedules.  

State X-ray Licensing Requirements

Each state has its own requirements regarding limited licensing in x-ray. Some states require graduation from a limited licensure school that is located within the state where you live in order to be eligible for licensure.

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